Fear of Tribes in Assamese Definition

It has been a long time since the issue of defining Assamese as unanimous and universally acceptable has often been stuck in one place. The question of who Assamese is is not answered. It would have happened 50-60 years ago, there would not have been as many problems in determining the definition. But over time it became increasingly complicated. The number of people who hesitated to identify themselves as Assamese in Assam began to increase gradually. Today the problem became so complicated that the word indigenous has to be used in place of Assamese or many have offered to take it as an alternative. The problem is not as complicated in the states of Maharashtra, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Punjab, Haryana etc. But complex in Assam. There are historical reasons for this. Assamese speakers in Assam have been facing complications over the word Assamese as they have ignored history and gone to form assamese caste on the basis of language. The problem would not have been so difficult had Assamese been the identity of a population living in a territory. But after the country gained independence, every political party that ruled the state continued to try to convert Assam into an Assamese-speaking state. The policy adopted by governments in the field of education created doubts and apprehensions among the tribes living in the state. Increases the risk of losing self-identity. Imposing another language on one person in one's own mother tongue will trigger a revolt. Why did Pakistan re-divide even after the partition of the country on the basis of religion? The residents of East Pakistan are all mainly Islam. But their language was at varicity with the other end of Pakistan. The Pakistani regime tried to impose Urdu on the people of East Pakistan. As a result the largest support for Pakistan came out of Pakistan and formed a nation on its own. In Assam too, the urge for self-identity increased in time. It took the form of a highway movement. The Dispur regime adopted repressive policies calling the movement or problems a sincere solution, as opposed to the anti-Assamese cycle, the provocation of opposition political parties, etc. This led to the creation of an idea that Dispur means Assamese speaking. Assamese's circumference began to become limited. It is said that the history of Assam left behind by the British is different from today's history. Assamese speakers in Assam today have faced a lot of problems due to denial of that history or not going into history.

The future of Assamese and Assamese is embedded in the historical process and development of Assamese nation building. Today's Assamese nation is actually formed with the combination of different communities. The process of combination between different communities started in northeast India from the pre-historic era. The Austrian population was joined by the Mongolian population. From the pre-historic era, Aryan speakers came from north-western India, apart from the Mongolian population, in northeast India. Then the names of North East India were Prague Astrologypur and Kamrup. With the arrival of the Aryans, the Aryan culture has an impact on the indigenous Anarya Mongolians. Dr. Birinchi Kumar Baruah writes about the assam arrival of Aryans in 'A cultural History of Assam' and the process of aryanization. Kamakhya was the Austrian-speaking Khasi's mauritius in Dr. Kakati's language. After The Austrians The People Of Kirat Or The Mongolian Bodo Group Have An Impact. Then, under the influence of Arya culture, that Kamakhya became known as the pilgrimage place of Arya Hindus. Perhaps from the first century AD, the process of aryanization began on the Mongolians of ancient Kamrup. Nevertheless, no common language or culture was created in ancient kamrup.

Mongolians were scattered in various difficult hills in northeast India for various group reasons. But the People of The Big Language Group under the large Mongolian group were living in vast areas of the Brahmaputra Valley. Until the arrival of Ahom, the people of the Big Language group were the strong castes and kings of the Brahmaputra Valley. Tai Ahoms, led by Sukafa in the 13th century, repeatedly fought for self-establishment with the already established Bodo language group. Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee writes in 'The place of Assam in History and Civilization of India that 'For 450 years, Bodo and Ahom fought with each other for mastery and both gradually merged into a single Assamese speaking people.' Tai Ahoms conquered the Brahmaputra Valley and ruled for six consecutive years and formed a cultural and social harmony with indigenous people in social structures. Tai Ahoms left their language culture and adopted Arya dharma and culture after taking over. At the invitation of the King of Ahom, the Brahmin community from north India came to Assam and assam was widely propagated and spread by The Aryan culture. The Aryans came to this region from the era of the Mahabharata. Nevertheless, it was during the Ahom reign that the Aryanization process gained popularity over its inhabitants. Assamese language of the magadhi prakrit origin of the original Aryan language has also been formed and developed under the influence of its native Mongolian language (Dr.Bani Kanta Kakati, Assamese: Its formation and development). Assamese language improved and expanded after the Ahoms left their language and adopted Assamese as royal language. The 600 year-old Ahom regime brought the indigenous people of the Brahmaputra Valley to the same economic and social structure and it became the same Assamese nation due to the long combination process between the indigenous population. Apart from Ahom, the large language groups of Brahmaputra Valley, such as Chutia, Koch, Kasari, Lalung, Deori, Maran, Matk, etc., temporarily abandoned their language culture and adopted Assamese language and all these Assamese speakers were known as 'Assamese'. The combined Assamese language formed a larger Assamese nation. The process of building a language-based Assamese nation has begun.

But the Mongolians, the Parvatiya tribes of northeast India, were never within the kingdom of Ahom or under the direct rule of Ahom. The Ahoms sometimes defeated the war and kept the Parvatiya tribes as the kartalai arajas (Dr.Surjya Kr. Bhuyan, Anglo-Assamese Relation). The influence of Assamese language and Aryan language culture on the Parvatiya tribes was very low for that reason. That is why nagas, mizos, khasis, jayantias, garo and arunachalis were removed in chronological order. But two hilly communities, Karbi and Dimasa, Bhaiyam tribes Boro, Rava, Missing, Deori, Tiwa are still living in Assam. As a result of the long combination, some of the communities like Boro, Missing, Karbi, Dimasa, Tiwa left their language culture and embraced or started embracing Assamese language culture. But from the '70s-80s onwards, awareness of their language culture, distinct ethnicity and survival and progress arose among the tribes of Assam. They demand political rights, equality and equal rights for themselves. They are desperate to live for their distinct self-identity and as a full-fledged nation. Demands for a separate state have been raised time and again. As a result, relations between the mainstream Assamese speakers and the different communities of Assam became strained. It may be recalled that many big and karbi writers who had written literature in Assamese language by embracing Assamese language were then seen dropping out of writing in Assamese language. It is interesting to note that various caste entities in Assam are refraining from realizing or analyzing real problems by calling them 'conspiracy of anti-assamese circles' by demanding equality and equal rights etc. and scientific discussions about such problems are rarely seen through historical analysis. These are discussed in a few articles by eminent intellectual and thinker Dr Hiren Goha. Dr. Gohaidev writes in an article titled 'Path to Nation Formation':

"The tribals did not yearn for national identity till the day of The Sausidin. But when the number of educated, positioned people among the tribals was high, they did not have the interest to take a lower seat in the Assamese Hindu society. The tribals became aware of their heritage and way of life in response to the fact that assamese Hindus are not the middle class to discard the concept of caste. They were not interested in getting into the 19th century Assamese nationality even as the influence of democratic and socialist politics spread. They no longer agree to accept social inferiority and political repression that has been going on since the Feudal era. However, the master Assamese have not tried to stop their awakening. But that day is no more. Tribals have crossed many hurdles and entered the path of development. Looking past they see a long stagnation. Today they are the ones who are eager to step in with the leading forces of civilization. It would be unfair to think of this authority, this desire for self-control, as the power of external forces alone. Or it will not work even if Assamese pride as their 'guide' or 'teacher'".

In an article titled 'Tribal Culture and The Future of Assam', Dr. Hiren Gohaidev clearly writes: 'The capitalist attitude spread among Hindu Assamese and increased exploitation of tribals. In keeping with that, the feeling of neglect towards the tribals increased. The influence of the bhadralok (Gentalmenclass) class of Bengal on the educated Assamese society of the 19th century was immense. In addition to very good things, the new educated Assamese also learnt a couple of bad things from the educated Bengali community. One of them is greater intensity in the judgment of castes and clans and a sense of 'jungle' or 'rude' towards tribals. Tribal society life is neglected not only in the social, economic and political fields but also in assamese literature and culture. Rajini Kant Barad's 'Miri Jiyi', Medini Chaudhary's 'Ferengadao', Dr. Virendra Kumar Bhattacharya's 'Yarungam', 'Mrityunjaya', Apart from a few novels like Umakant Sharma's 'Bharund Pakhi Jaank', Rita Chaudhary's 'Deolankhui', Tilottama Mishra's 'K Meikhar Ghar', assamese literature has not yet seen the eye-catching way the original Assamese writer presented in the story-novels despite such a rich, tribal culture. In 1925, however, a Sahab named G.D.Walker wrote the Karbi dictionary "A Dictionary of the Mikir Language". British officials and missionaries have written at least four Karbi dictionaries. The most worrying thing is that even today the book "The Mikirs" written by Edward Stack and Sir Charles Lyall Sahab is the only reliable book written on the Karbi. Coming from Tubingen University in far-off Germany, Dr.Karl.Heinz Grussner wrote in German in 1973 about the grammar of karbi language - "Arleng Alam, die Sprach Der Mikir: Grammatik U.Texte".The american University of Oregon researcher Dr.Linda Konnerth has already completed the karbi grammar formulation. Here is the question: What have assamese writers and researchers done all these days.We also have a lot of wet experience in our personal and job life. On the whole, in today's Assam, the tribals have not been able to introduce themselves as Assamese. As a result people of tribal origin are hesitant to identify themselves as Assamese. Instead of denying the aspirations of small, developed castes to develop self-development, tribal people must be paved the way for tribalpeople to step equally with the mainstream Assamese by recognizing tribal languages and facilitating equal development. This work will not be possible unless the extremist attitude and attitude of the mainstream Assamese people changes.

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